Current Approaches Fall Short
Trojan circuitry within individual chips have been a serious concern; as such, there are efforts within the government to create a means for securely manufacturing leading-edge chips for military use. One program is the Intelligence Advanced Research Project Activity’s (IARPA) Trusted Integrated Chips program. However, even if this or similar US government’s efforts eventually pay off, there will continue to be grave issues regarding Trojan chips that impact national security. One issue is only ICs targeted for national security applications are being addressed. Additionally, for better or worse, consumer smart phones and tablets, with their increasing capability and low-cost, have also begun to make their way into the military complex. Facebook and Twitter are being espoused by the military as a means for soldiers to stay in contact with each other. As the military has no significant control over how the chips in consumer-targeted smart systems are designed and where they are manufactured, they are now unprotected. Finally, smart phones and tablets used by the general public, subject to a Trojan chip-enabled attack, would themselves create a national security incident by impacting public communication infrastructures.
Even if the approaches being pursued for prevention and detection of hardware Trojans in government systems were applied to consumer products, the significant process and testing overhead and commensurate cost increase imposed make the approaches impractical. Furthermore, unless testing is applied to all chips and packages, the approaches would be ineffective at finding Trojan circuits in systems whose design or assembly would be modified either post-test phase or on a random basis. Finally, the relative ease which Trojan chips may be inserted into a system through 3D and 2.5D IC technology make it the first route for widespread infiltration of consumer products—however, this form of infiltration has also been, for the most part, ignored in government and university research.
Immediate National Security Solution
In order to head off the threat of 3D IC technology providing a path for Trojan chips making it into the military supply chain, it is strongly advised that a captive, leading edge, US-based assembly and packaging capability be funded and added into the Trusted Foundry and IARPA mix of solutions. This is required for eliminating the threat of 3D IC-based Trojan circuits.
To truly protect against hardware Trojans being inserted as part of the 2.5D and 3D IC assembly and packaging process, the prevention and test capabilities must be designed in from the beginning. A “Design for Security (DFS)” approach is required, anticipating the inclusion Trojan circuitry. Providing means to monitoring the stacked die system power bus for anomalies, along with an approach to isolate a rogue circuit from power once detected would be one such example. In another, eliminate a Trojan’s ability to monitor data for incoming commands over the system data bus, by locally encrypting transmitted data. Finally, monitoring of the assembly process, through secure photogrammetric “paper trail” of key steps in the assembly process might be used for audit as a standard practice in 3D IC packaging.
Design Guidelines and Standards
For these reasons, design guidelines and standards, prepared by and agreed to by the international community, is required. Why the international community? Other nation’s governments, military, and consumers outside the US are not immune to potential use of hardware Trojans injected into their systems. Whether the Trojan is considered a secret “feature” to be exploited by corporations or large governments, or is unknown to all but hacker who may have inserted the circuitry, the threat is real. Hence, the entire industry would benefit in knowing that their electronic systems—missiles, satellites, computers, routers, smart phones, and tablets—will work as advertised, without fear of data compromise, remote control, or disablement.
 Reports of Counterfeit Parts Quadruple Since 2009, Challenging US Defense Industry and National Security, iSupply, February 14, 2012
 Ballistic Missile Defense System
 Trailing-edge is a few generations behind the currently used technology
 See: “http://www.dmea.osd.mil/trustedic.html”
 China’s Space Program: A Growing Factor in U.S. Security Planning, Dean Cheng, The Heritage Foundation, August 16, 2011
 Apple’s Jobs confirms iPhone ‘kill switch’, The Telegraph, August 11, 2008
 Apple applies for patent to kill jailbroken devices, CNET, August 22, 2010
 FBI Criminal Investigation: Cisco Routers, Section Chief Raul Roldan, January, 11, 2008
 Dormant Curse, John Ellis, Neodigm Press
 iPhone 4 Explodes Midflight on Australian Airline, Laruen Effron, ABC News, November 28, 2011
 Trusted Integrated Chips (TIC) Program, IARPA, Homeland Security, IARPA-BAA-11-09
 Army gives soldiers access to Twitter, Facebook, Doug Beizer , Wyatt Kash, Government Computer News, Jun 11, 2009