This paper was written for DARPA after participating in a winter 2008 DARPA workshop on safe and secure integrated circuit manufacturing. One of the big issues at the time was theft of intellectual property, particularly with Cray Research’s $250M DARPA award-funded project to design a next generation vector processor being fabricated in Asia. The paper documents my concerns and provides a potential solution to the serious problems faced. Given the rapidly evolving market conditions, I updated the paper to reflect the changes, in November 2009. Most of the papers points, and the solution provided, still ring true today. However, the problem that 3D IC packaging adds to the equation have only increased the means by which malicious circuitry may be inserted.